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Angles and Lens


The first part is the size of the lens, which generally allows you to see farther. Now with the HD camera’s offered today you can still see the clarity behind, but think of it as a “zoom” feature without pixilation of the image or actually having to physically “zoom” in.
As you can see, as your lens gets higher, you get a closer shot of the image with consistent clarity of the original show. As you get closer though, your horizontal angle of view becomes much smaller.
Often when purchasing a camera you will want to know the viewing angle which is directly impacted by the mm of the lens you select. The higher the mm of the lens, the less of a “Horizontal” angle you see. Think of this like a large window in front of you. As you walk close to it, you see less of the windows outer frame, but more of what is inside the window. You can see a much farther distance, but you see less of the original area.
This Chart will help explain Horizontal angle of view:
The positioning of the camera can impact your Horizontal line of view. If you were to place a 6mm camera on the corner of a building watching an intersection, you would see less of the surrounding sidewalks than if you put the camera mid-building.
The Aperture is how much light the lens actually allows into the picture. This image will help you see the difference in the numbers:
This can have a large affect on how the image in the background can be displayed. As you can see with the next image, having a higher Aperture can definitely help you see what is happening in the background more clearly.

Surveillance Dictionary


ABF (Auto Back Focus) technology allows box cameras to adjust the position of the image sensor to obtain optimal focus. This feature can also be accessed via the Web client.


NVRs with the ANR (Automatic Network Replenishment) function can automatically store video data on the IPC storage card when the network is disconnected. After recovery of the network, the NVR automatically retrieves the video data stored on the camera.

Audio Loss Detection

Audio Loss Detection is one of the exception detection in Smart Features set. When this function is enabled, alarm actions will be triggered when there is audio loss.


BLC (Backlight Compensation) compensates for the luminance of video captured in a back-lit environment, while maintaining the luminance of the overall video sequence. Simply put, BLC enables objects that appear dark to be visible against a very bright background such as in front of a window or entrance. BLC is usually effective for some specific region in the video, as the background is usually overexposed.


DIS (Digital Image System) cameras are a new series of analog entry-level products. With excellent image quality, low power consumption, and high reliability, DIS cameras can provide a perfect cost-effective alternative to traditional analog cameras.


By modeling the imaging features of smoke, dust, fog, etc., defog technology effectively restores details and color to obtain accurate and natural video. Defog technology helps maintain clarity in images captured in poor weather conditions such as rain, smog, or fog.

Digital Watermark

Digital watermark technology embeds the device information onto the recorded video. Digital watermarks may be used to verify the authenticity or integrity of the video or to show the identity of its owners.

Defocus Detection

Defocus detection is one of the exception in the Smart Feature set. When this function is enabled, alarm actions will be triggered when the camera is out of focus.

3D DNR (Digital Noise Reduction)

Cameras adopt 3D digital noise reduction to provide images with less noise in low-light surveillance scenes compared to conventional cameras. 3D DNR can be used to enhance image quality and save bandwidth.

EIS (Electronic Image Stabilization)

In conditions with slight vibrations (e.g., an electrical pole in strong winds), videos will appear fuzzy due to the vibration. EIS (Electronic Image Stabilization) can help reduce the effects of vibration in a video.

Face Detection

Face Detection is one of the detection features in Smart Features set. With face detection technology, a network camera can accurately detect human faces, capture facial images, or trigger an alarm.

HDD Group

HDD Group mode is one of the HDD storage modes in DVRs/NVRs. Multiple HDDs can be managed in groups. Video from specified channels can be recorded onto a certain HDD group through HDD settings.

HDD Quota

HDD Quota mode is one of the HDD storage modes in DVRs/NVRs. Each camera can be configured with an allocated quota of HDDs to store recorded files.

Heat Map

The video surveillance heat map records the motion of customer foot traffic over a period of time and displays temporal density and spatial statistics in different colors. For instance, in the figure below red shows the areas customers most frequently visited and tended to stay longer, and blue reflects otherwise. Heat map is ideal for use in locations such as supermarkets, retail stores, etc., to help businesses identify the most popular merchandise and where to place products in order to increase sales.


SimpleDDNS is a FREE dynamic domain name server provided which offers persistent domain name for non-static IP devices. DDNS technology is widely used in various devices (e.g., DVR, NVR, IPC, etc.) without having to register for a third-party domain name. When you register the service, you can use a fixed domain name to access your devices that have a dynamic IP address. Please refer to this link for detailed instructions on how to configure SimpleDDNS for devices.

HLC (High Light Compensation)

In conditions with a strong light source towards the camera, there will be over-exposed areas, or “high light.” The HLC (High Light Compensation) function can automatically recognize and constrain the high light to make objects more distinguishable.

ICR (IR Cut filter Removable)

Cameras with the ICR (IR Cut filter Removable) function have a mechanical IR filter that filters infrared light during the day to correct color casts caused by infrared light. At night the camera removes the filter automatically to let infrared light pass through, enhancing night visibility.

Intrusion Detection

Intrusion detection is a behavior analysis function in Smart Features set. If a person enters and loiters in a pre-defined virtual region, the camera will automatically detect the event and can trigger alarms or recording if pre-configured. By applying the latest algorithm, it automatically analyzes the intruder’s dimension ratio to reduce false alarms. Intrusion detection is extremely beneficial for defined area protection.

Low Bit Rate

By applying an advanced codec (compress/decompress) algorithm, Smart IP cameras can realize efficient encoding and further minimize the system’s load and storage requirements. At a very low bit rate streaming condition, 720p resolution at a 2 Mbps bitrate, 4- Series cameras are able to increase the image quality up to 30 percent.

Line Crossing Detection

Line Crossing detection is one of the behavior detection features in Smart Features set. If a person crosses a pre-defined virtual line, the camera will automatically detect the event and can trigger alarms or recording if pre-configured to do so.

Motion Detection

If there is any motion in the configured detection area, the camera will automatically detect the event and can trigger pre-configured alarms or recording. Users can set sensitivity level, detection area, and arming schedule accordingly.

Multi-Address Mode

Multi-address mode is an NVR (Network Video Recorder) function on networks with more than one NIC (Network Interface Controller). Each NIC works independently with separate parameter settings, which can be assigned with a different IP address in a different network. Multi-address mode can be used to establish network isolation.

Net-Fault Tolerance Mode

Net-Fault Tolerance Mode is an NVR (Network Video Recorder) function on networks with more than one NIC (Network Interface Controller). All the NICs use the same IP address. If a working NIC breaks down, others will continue to work and the NVRs’ network connection is not affected.

Hot Spare

Hot spare protects the system against NVR (Network Video Recorder) network failures. When an NVR fails to connect to the network, a hot spare NVR will take its place to ensure data integrity and reliability. After the failed NVR is online, the hot spare NVR will send the data back to the working NVR.

Object Removal Detection

Object Removal Detection is one of the behavior analysis detection in Smart Features set. If objects are removed from a pre-defined region, such as exhibits on display, the camera will automatically detect the event and can trigger alarms or recording if pre-configured.

People Counting

People Counting is one of the features in Smart Features set. Cameras with the people counting function are usually installed vertically to the entrance gate of hotels, supermarkets, museums, etc. The number of people that enter and exit the room can be counted and displayed on the screen in real time.

Privacy Mask

Privacy mask is used to block or mask certain areas of a scene from viewing and recording to protect privacy.


The Smart IP camera adopts the most advanced iris control technology, P-iris, which allows for keeping accurate and consistent sharpness and depth of view.


In some surveillance scenarios, users pay special attention only to a certain region instead of the entire image. The region that attracts special attention is known as the region of interest, or ROI. The ROI encoding method was developed to provide different compression         levels between the ROI and background information in order to capture clearer key information without increasing the overall bitrate. The application of ROI encoding technology helps to conserve bandwidth and optimize the bitrate resource allocation, thus ensuring the image quality of the region of interest.

RAID (Redundant Arrays of Independent Disks)

RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) is a storage technology that combines multiple disk drive components into a logical unit. A RAID setup stores data over multiple hard disk drives to provide enough redundancy so that data can be recovered if one disk fails. Data is distributed across the drives in one of several ways called “RAID levels,” depending on what level of redundancy and performance is required.

Rotate Mode

In a vertically-shaped location such as a hallway or corridor, a horizontal-shaped image  could result in pixel wastage. Rotate Mode can change the image from horizontal to vertical, so as to maximize pixel usage and avoid wasting bandwidth and storage space.

Region Entrance

Region Entrance is a behavior analysis function of Smart Features set. If someone enters a pre-defined virtual region, the camera will automatically detect the event and can trigger alarms or recording if pre-configured.

Smart IR

The improved Smart IR function adjusts the IR strength to have better visibility depending on specific requirements. Smart IR is usually used to solve the problem of IR over-exposure in close shots.

Smart Tracking

The Smart Tracking function is an innovative technology for PTZ dome cameras, which can enhance the effectiveness of the video surveillance system. In surveillance scenes where the occasional presence of people or vehicles require special attention (e.g., bank vaults, hotel corridors, parking garages, etc.), smart tracking can be used to detect moving objects and follow their movements until they’re out of view.

Scene Change Detection

Scene change detection is a behavior analysis function of Smart Features set. If someone changes the camera’s viewing direction so that the camera captures a different scene, the camera will automatically detect the event and can trigger alarms or recording if pre- configured.

Smart Playback

Smart Playback is a feature of Smart Feature set. Smart Playback provides an easy way to go through less important information quickly. In Smart Playback mode, the system will analyze the video containing the motion or VCA information. The video with motion or VCA will be played at normal speed while the one without motion or VCA information will be played at up to 16-times speed. The Smart Playback rules and areas are configurable.

Sudden Audio Increase/Decrease Detection

Sudden Audio Increase/Decrease Detection is a behavior analysis function of Smart Features set. If there is sudden audio change, either increase or decrease, the camera will automatically detect the event and can trigger alarms or recording if pre-configured.

S.M.A.R.T. (Self-Monitoring Analysis and Reporting Technology)

S.M.A.R.T. (Self-Monitoring Analysis and Reporting Technology) is a monitoring system for HDDs to detect and report on various indicators of reliability in the hopes of anticipating failures.

Triple Streams

Triple streams provide much more flexibility to users by allowing different data streams to be sent simultaneously. Each stream has independent purposes:

  • The first stream with high resolution and full frame rate can be used for main
  • The second stream with lower resolution can be used for mobile
  • The third stream with high, low, or dynamic resolution offers more flexible choices.

Transcoded Stream

NVRs support a transcoded stream for remote live views and playback. Under  situations with limited bandwidth, users can use a transcoded stream to lower the resolution, bitrate, and frame rate of the original bit stream to fulfill the needs of a low- bandwidth network and offer more solutions for remote monitoring.

Unattended Baggage

Unattended Baggage is one of the behavior analysis functions of Smart Features set. If an object(s) is removed from a scene (e.g., baggage, purse, dangerous materials, etc.), the camera will automatically detect the event and can trigger alarms or recording if so pre- configured.

VCA  (Video Content Analysis)

VCA (Video Content Analysis) is the capability to analyze video automatically to detect and determine temporal and spatial events. Many smart functionalities can be implemented in VCA such as intrusion detection, line crossing detection, etc.

VQD (Video Quality Diagnosis)

VQD (Video Quality Diagnosis) is a feature that monitors the video for abnormal qualities (i.e., blurred image, abnormal brightness, and color cast). An alarm will be triggered and linked with configured response actions.

Virtual Host

Virtual Host is an NVR (Network Video Recorder) function that lets users link directly to an IPC’s configuration Web page through the Internet Explorer (IE) browser. Virtual Host solves the issue of logging into an IPC when the IPC is in a different network from the NVR, making the system more convenient and user-friendly.

WDR (Wide Dynamic Range)

In conditions with very bright and dark areas, such as at an entrance door in an office building or an entrance way to an indoor parking garage or tunnel, a camera may capture over-exposed images in bright areas and under-exposed images in dark areas, which greatly affects image quality. A camera with WDR (Wide Dynamic Range) can help solve this issue. By combining images with short exposure (for bright areas) and long exposure (for dark areas) into one image, WDR technology captures both bright areas and dark areas clearly.

Zero Channel

For remote access, users are able to combine multiple channel videos into one zero channel and save transmission bandwidth.


How Megapixel terms relate to actual Resolution
 There is often a lot of confusion between pixels and the terms which go along with them. Everyone knows the phrase “1080p”, but in actual context what does it mean? Often when you hear the phrase “1080p”, or even “720p”, it is referring to the vertical lines of Pixels.  A pixel (short for picture element) is a single point in a picture. On the monitor of a computer, a pixel is usually a square. Every pixel has a color and all the pixels together are the picture.

When you hear the phrase “1080p”, it actually means 1920 x 1080. The first set of numbers is always the width, or the horizontal lines of resolution. The second number is always the height, or the vertical lines of resolution. The higher the resolution (AxB) the crisper the picture looks. Remember how boxy those arcade style video games looked? The resolution of Pac man was a staggering 224 x 288.

Although you are recording at 1080p, it doesn’t necessarily mean you are viewing it at 1080p. Most PC monitors do not have a 1920×1080 resolution. You might be recording at 1080p, and viewing playback at 1080p, but your viewing monitor will convert the resolution to your current settings.

For example my screen display is 1280×1024, so my “1080p” picture will actually convert to a 1.3MP image.  This can cause distortion on the actual image.

A table which lists the terms to the actual Resolution:

Name/ Pixel Count Horizontal x Vertical
VGA/.3MP 640×480
720p/1MP 1280×720
1080p/2MP 1920×1080
3MP 2048×1536
5MP 2592×1944
4K/8MP 3840×2160
10MP 3648×2752



What does IP66 mean on Security Camera Spec Sheets

On the occasion, while looking for cameras you will come across the term: IP66 compliant, but what does that mean? IP66 is usually a rating that is giving to outdoor cameras and it defines the camera’s ability to keep out foreign objects. The IP stands for Ingress (the act of entering) Protection. The first numerical digit (in this case being 6) describes the rating that is given for solid objects. The rating of 1, the lowest rating, defines the entering object being greater than 50mm. The rating of 6, the highest rating, means the camera would be dust tight. The second numerical digit (again, in this instance a 6) defines how well the camera can keep liquids out. The rating of 1 means no special protection at all. The rating of 8, the highest rating, meaning the camera would be suitable for continuous submersion in water.

Below is a chart that describes the rating of the two numerical digits that follow IP:

Protection against solid objects
1st Digit Description Definition
0 Non-protected No special protection
1 Protected against solid objects greater than 50 mm A large surface of the body such as the hand (no protection against deliberate access). Solid objects exceeding 50mm diameter
2 Protected against solid objects greater than 12 mm Fingers or other objects not exceeding 80 mm in length. Solid objects exceeding 12 mm diameter
3 Protected against solid objects greater than 2.5 mm Tools, wires, etc. of diameter or thickness greater than 2.5 mm. Solid objects exceeding 2.5 mm diameter.
4 Protected against solid objects greater than 1.0 mm Wires or strips of thickness greater than1.0 mm. Solid objects exceeding 1.0 mm
5 Dust protected Ingress of dust is not totally prevented but dust does not enter in sufficient quantity to interfere with satisfactory operation of the equipment
6 Dust-tight No ingress of dust



Protection against liquids
2nd Digit Description Definition
0 Non-protected No special protection
1 Protected against dripping water Dripping water (vertically falling drops)
2 Protected against dripping water when tilted up to 15º Vertically dripping water shall have no harmful effect when the enclosure is tilted at any angle up to 15º from its normal position
3 Protected against spraying water Water falling as spray at an angle up to 60º  from the vertical shall have no harmful effect
4 Protected against splashing water Water splashed against the enclosure from any direction shall have no harmful effect
5 Protected against water jets Water projected from a nozzle against the enclosure from any direction shall have no harmful effect
6 Protected against heavy seas Water from heavy seas or water projected in powerful jets shall not enter the enclosure in harmful quantities
7 Protected against the effects of immersion Ingress of water in a harmful quantity shall not be possible when the enclosure is immersed in water under defined conditions of pressure and time
8 Protected against submersion The equipment is suitable for continuous submersion in water under conditions, which shall be specified by the manufacturer


ONVIF Compliance

The surveillance industry has created an open standard protocol called ONVIF.  By definition it is a standard for physical security equipment, which is open to anyone and ensures interoperability regardless of manufacturer.  Initially focused on video, ONVIF is being extended to other areas of physical security including Access Control. ONVIF standards vary by version, which dictate feature compatibility and system integration.

It is important to note that not all cameras manufactured are ONVIF compatible. ONVIF is a relatively new standard. Some manufacturers may have produced equipment before the ONVIF standard was introduced, therefore some cameras may not be complaint. As an example, a non- ONVIF compliant camera may only provide basic video connectivity and viewing but lack the ability for more advanced features, such as motion detection.

ONVIF Profiles

Profile S:

  • IP-based video systems
  • Video & audio streaming
  • Pan-tilt-zoom control & relay output
  • Video configuration & multicast

 Profile C:

  • IP-based access control
  • Site info & configuration
  • Door access control
  • Event & alarm management

Profile G:

  • Edge storage and retrieval
  • Video & audio streaming
  • Configure, request and control recording from conformant devices
  • Receive audio & metadata stream
ONVIF Profile S Versions

ONVIF Profile S continues to evolve along with the industry. Make sure the feature you desire (such as motion recording or video analytics) is supported by all the products, regardless of manufacturer. The simplified ONVIF compliance table below shows features supported by the various versions.


What is the difference between Optical and Digital Zoom?

Zoom on a security camera can make a big difference. A lens with the capability to capture details will record superior video footage when compared to its competition. Sometimes intricate video footage is necessary, especially in places which need top of the line security. Therefore, someone purchasing a security camera needs to know exactly where the security camera will be placed. They will also need to be aware of any specifications the camera will need to meet.  When this is done, the zoom can be optimized to meet every need.

Optical Zoom on Security Cameras

Optical zoom makes the lens of the security camera move inwards or outwards to get a better view of an object. In fact, people who use security cameras with optical zoom are often amazed at how detailed the pictures become. It is almost like they are right next to the object, observing it with a microscope. Security cameras that use optical zoom are fantastic for someone that is looking to have a complete surveillance system that records footage in amazing clarity and resolution. If someone is carrying an identified object that looks like a gun or a pole, an optical lens can zoom in and clarify if the person is a threat. Optical lenses have the capacity to make images clearer without much effort.

 Digital Zoom on Security Cameras

Digital video footage is completely comprised of pixels. When digital zoom is used, it simply enlarges the pixels of an image. Often, this can result in blurry or pixelated footage if the camera is not set up properly. It is easier to move digitized video onto a computer or any other electronic device. When used properly, digital zoom in video surveillance can be just as effective as optical lenses.

Summary of Optical and Digital Zoom

Security cameras which use optical zoom are best for an individual, company, or business that is looking for clear images with high resolution. However, someone who is interested in the convenience technology has to offer would benefit a lot more from a camera which uses digital zoom. Both cameras have their advantages and drawbacks.  Both cameras have great zooming features that work best in different situations. So long as the camera is used for what it is designed for, both pieces of technology are amazing security cameras that any home, company, or place of business would benefit from.


What does LUX actually mean?

A LUX is the International System of Units (SI) measure of the intensity of light. It can be thought of as the strength of light as determined by the human eye.

In order to put things in perspective, here some are some setting examples with their equivalent LUX rating:

  • A quarter moon-lit night produces about .01 LUX
  • A full moon on a clear night produces about27 LUX
  • A full moon on a clear night produces about5 – 1 LUX
  • An average family room produces about 50 LUX
  • An overcast, dark day produces about 100 LUX
  • Typical office lighting ranges from about 300 to 500 LUX
  • Direct sunlight can range from about 30,000 to 130,000 LUX

The LUX rating of a security camera is based on several factors, three of which are the lens, chip, and aperture.  The lower the LUX rating of a security camera, the less light is needed for the camera to produce a usable image.

When considering chip technology, there are basically two types of chips used to produce an image, CMOS and CCD.  CMOS sensors usually require a brighter intensity of light then CCD sensors.

Lens can also affect the LUX rating.  Light must pass through the lens, and some of that light is absorbed.  If the lens has any special filter technology, or if it is shaped in a unique way, it can increase the LUX rating of the camera.

The aperture is an opening or hole that the light passes through before activating the sensor. The lower the aperture the closer to the camera the image will remain in focus. If the aperture is at a higher, the objects farther away are in focus. Less light is needed for low aperture to produce a clear image.

Most security cameras operate with a LUX rating of 1.0 or less. Some cameras have LUX ratings as low as .003 LUX.  If a camera has a rating of 0.0 LUX it must be an infrared camera. No picture can be captured at 0 LUX unless it is in Infrared


Setup Cloud P2P (CMS)


Add a Device to CMS from the Local LAN or Network Segment

  1. Got to Encoding to and select add a new device
  2. For a Device on a local LAN or Network
    1. Device Name – Enter an identifiable Name in this Field
    2. Address – Use the SADP Tool to scan your network for the IP Address of your devices. Most installations you will only need to use your NVR Address.
    3. Port – default setting will be Port 8000. This can be changed in Network Configuration.
    4. User Name and Password – Enter your device user name and password (Default User: admin Default Pass: admin12345)
  3. Enter the requested parameters and press Add

Enable Cloud P2P on your Device (check device type to see if supported)

  1. Login to your NVR via Web Browser
  2. Select the Configuration Tab
  3. Select Network – Advanced Settings
  4. Select Platform Access
    1. Under Platform Access Select Enable
    2. From the Platform Access Mode drop down mode select “Cloud P2P”
    3. Note – Register Status will show “Offline” until setup is complete

Setup and Create a Cloud P2P Account (Also see Cloud P2P for Smart Phone)

  1. Launch the CMS Client
  2. Select Device Management from the home screen
  3. Under the Server Tab, Select Add New Device Type
  4. Select Cloud P2P Device
  5. Create a Cloud Account for you device by selecting Cloud P2P and click “Register”
  6. Enter Parameters
    1. Cloud P2P Account – Enter a unique name
    2. Password – create a unique Password
    3. Email – enter a email address where you verification code will be sent and your account will be registered to
    4. Retype the 4 digit code and press “Get Verification Code” – this will be sent to the email address in item C.
      1. NOTE: if you get invalid email the email might have an account already associated to it. Type a different email address.
    5. Email Verification Code – Enter the code send to the Email Address entered above
    6. Press Register
      1. NOTE: if you get an error account has already be used enter a new Cloud P2P Account Name.
    7. With successful registration you will get a Login Window requesting you to login. (user your Cloud P2P Account name and Password entered above).
  7. Add a new Device- select the add a new Device icon.
  8. Enter you serial number and verification code.
    1. The Serial Number and Verification Codes can be found on the label on the bottom of your NVR.



  1. Make sure a proper DNS is setup in the NVR. A good recommendation is Google DNS at
  2. P2P configuration doesn’t provide a static URL to your NCR’s potentially-changing public IP address
  3. P2P provides a video stream tied a user account not IP Address
  4. It is more of a simplistic viewing platform as opposed to a DDNS service
  5. Not Recommended for larger enterprise or corporate networks
  6. There are some security risks – ask your IT manager
  7. Video Images are not consistent like DDNS or Static URL configurations
  8. You may see some but not all video streams and there is a connection timeout, bandwidth and quality limitations while using P2P.

How to configure HTTPS

Https protocol is Hyper Text Transfer Protocol over Secure Socket Layer. With this protocol,
the data transmitted can be encrypted to enhance security level.
NVR products provide self-signed certificate, which means the user can use a free Https
certificate on local area network. Or, user can install signed certificate or create
certificate request.

This article shows how to configure HTTPS protocol in 3 ways.

1. Self-signed certificate
Self-signed certificate is a private certificate which provides users with a secure
link to access to the NVR. It’s highly recommended to be used in local area network.
Access to the webpage of device (NVR is the sample device in this article), go to
Configuration-Network-Advanced Settings-HTTPS:

Choose Create Self-signed certificate and click create, input the basic information and
click ok.

Check Enable and click Save, a self-signed certificate will be installed into the device.

The address format of https is https://IPaddress:Port, notice that all self-signed
certificate will pop out below hint, click Continue to this website.


2. Create certificate request 
Our NVR products supports quick-export certificate request, you can upload this request
to some official certificate authorities.

Click Create, input basic information of certificate, notice that fixed public IP address or
domain name is required as Hostname/IP.
Notice: Don’t input request password for NVR which runs an older firmware version than

After creating request, download the file to PC. This request should be used to apply for official
https certificate.

3. Install signed certificate
After certificate is signed by official authority, user can install it to the NVR. Notice that
the public IP address or domain name must match the device’s actual IP address. User
can access to device with https link in public network.

(1) Only PEM format certificate is supported;
(2) NVR can only recognize the certificate which is generated basing on the request
exported by itself;
(3) A new signature is required when user re-uploads the certificate


Video Surveillance Laws Listed By State

The information provided below is current at the time of this posting. The following is not to be used as legal advice. State and local laws may change or be periodically updated. It is your responsibility to educate yourself about the current status of local laws governing the use of video and audio surveillance equipment. If you know of a change or see an error, please contact us. If you have specific questions about the use of audio or video surveillance equipment in your area please contact your local law enforcement agency or an attorney that is educated in your local statutes. States not listed have no specific laws at the time of this writing.

• Alabama – Video surveillance in a “private place” is prohibited.
• Arkansas – The Arkansas statute prohibited in a private place without the permission of the people photographed or observed is against the law
• California – Video recording of “confidential communications” is prohibited without consent.
• Delaware – Hidden cameras are prohibited without consent.
• Georgia – Consent of all parties is required for video recording and photography in private places.
• Hawaii – Hidden cameras are prohibited without consent.
• Illinois – Silent video recording is not prohibited.
• Kansas – Hidden cameras are prohibited without consent.
• Maine – Hidden cameras are prohibited without consent.
• Michigan – Hidden cameras in a private place are prohibited without consent.
• Minnesota – Hidden cameras are prohibited in private places.
• New Hampshire – Hidden cameras are prohibited without consent.
• New Jersey – The statute does not prohibit hidden video recording.
• North Carolina – North Carolina does not have a specific law regarding hidden cameras in private places.
• South Carolina – A Peeping Tom under the statute is a person who “peeps through windows, doors or other like places” on another’s premises for the purpose of “spying upon or invading the privacy” of others or for “any other conduct of a similar nature” that tends to invade the privacy of others.
• South Dakota – Hidden cameras are prohibited without consent.
• Tennessee – Tennessee’s “Peeping Tom” statute forbids a person to “knowingly photograph or cause to be photographed” in a privet place
• Utah – Hidden cameras are forbidden in private areas; violation is a misdemeanor.
• Washington – Silent video recording is not prohibited.

In General:
In general, it’s illegal to obtain video surveillance of someone with malicious purposes. It is also illegal to take video surveillance of an individual in a place of “expected privacy”, where the surveillance will violate specific privacy laws. These “expected privacy” or “private places” may include:

• Bedrooms
• Bathrooms
• Locker Rooms
• Dressing Rooms
• Changing Rooms
• Hotel Rooms
• Showers

Use of Hidden Cameras in Your Home or Residence
In general, you are entitled to install a hidden surveillance camera in your home for purposes of safety or home security. The footage captured may be able to be used in court when prosecuting an individual caught breaking the law within your home. However, some states do prohibit the use of hidden surveillance cameras that also capture audio. This means that a surveillance tape with audio may not be able to be used in a court prosecution. States that don’t allow you to capture audio without the person’s express consent include:

• Washington
• Pennsylvania
• Oregon
• New Hampshire
• Nevada
• Montana
• Massachusetts
• Maryland
• Louisiana
• Illinois
• Hawaii
• Florida
• Delaware
• Connecticut
• California

Hidden Cameras in Businesses
Many businesses use video surveillance systems (either hidden or within view) in order to promote the security of their business. These cameras can help catch thieves or shoplifters within a business, and can also allow the company’s security to identify any dangerous or illegal activity, and it is legal.

Audio & the Law
Audio Recording features are built into all the systems we offer. Recording both video and audio can be a very effective tool for security and legal surveillance purposes. However there are liabilities you may assume if you use these features incorrectly. Ultimately it is your responsibility to make sure your use of such equipment abides by the local laws.
The recording of covert or hidden audio without consent of at least one party is almost always illegal. Nearly all audio recording without consent of one or all parties is unlawful. Recording audio is very different from video, and there are definite federal and state laws prohibiting surreptitious recording and monitoring of audio interactions. These laws are taken extremely seriously by authorities and failure to adhere to them could result in serious consequences. There are two types of defined recording situations for audio recording. They are usually identified as “One Party Consent” and “Two Party Consent”.
• “One Party Consent” means that only the person doing the recording has to give consent and does not have to notify the other party or parties that the conversation is being recorded.
• “Two Party Consent” means the person recording the conversation must notify all of the other parties that the recording is taking place and they must consent to the recording.
Federal Audio Recording Laws The federal wiretapping statute, also known as the Electronic Communications Privacy Act, permits phone calls (traditional, cellular and cordless) and other electronic communication to be recorded with the consent of at least one party, or “one party consent”, to the conversation. This means that should you be among the people taking part in the conversation, it may be recorded because one person has consented to the recording.

States with “One Party Consent” for Audio Recording
• Alabama • Minnesota • Virginia
• Alaska • Nebraska • West Virginia
• Arizona • New Jersey • Wisconsin
• Arkansas • New Mexico • Wyoming
• Colorado • New York
• District of Columbia • North Carolina
• Georgia • North Dakota
• Idaho • Oklahoma
• Indiana • Oregon
• Iowa • Ohio
• Kentucky • Rhode Island
• Louisiana • South Carolina
• Maine • South Dakota
• Minnesota • Tennessee
• Mississippi • Texas
• Missouri • Vermont
States with “Two Party Consent” for Audio Recording
• California
• Connecticut
• Delaware
• Florida
• Hawaii
• Illinois
• Kansas
• Maryland
• Massachusetts
• Michigan
• Montana
• Nevada
• New Hampshire
• Pennsylvania
• Utah
• Washington

Intent Matters!
Since many US states have a “gray area” in regard to hidden camera surveillance, the concept of “intent” has often been brought into the legal spotlight. Should you be taking hidden video surveillance of your nanny to ensure that she is keeping your children safe; this is acceptable intent. However, if you are taking video surveillance of visitors to your home in order to blackmail, this can be considered malicious intent. It’s also illegal.


RTSP without Authentication (NVR/DVR/IPC/Encoder)

rtsp://<IP address of device>:<RTSP port>/Streaming/channels/<channel number><stream number>

NOTE: <stream number> represents main stream (01), or the sub stream (02)


rtsp:// – get the main stream of the 1st channel

rtsp:// – get the sub stream of the 1st ch

RTSP with Authentication

rtsp://<username>:<password>@<IP address of device>:<RTSP port>/Streaming/channels/<channel

number><stream number>



rtsp://Hikvision:guest@ – get the main stream of the 17th channel


rtsp://Hikvision:guest@ – get the sub stream of the 19th channel


HTTP commands to get IPC MJPEG stream

  1. Camera firmware need to be v4.1 or higher
  2. Can only stream the Sub stream via HTTP
  3. Need to change the Sub stream video encoding to MJPEG
  4. Resolution can be changed via web interface
  5. Can only connect directly to the camera with HTTP – no NVR connection

NOTE: If the HTTP port of the device is still 80 (default), then “:<HTTP port>” is not required.


HTTP without Authentication

http://<IP address of IPC>:<HTTP port>/Streaming/channels/102/httpPreview

HTTP with Authentication

http://<username>:<password>@<IP address of IPC>:<HTTP port>/Streaming/channels/102/httpPreview


Snapshot using HTTP URL

http://<IP address of IPC>:<HTTP port>/Streaming/channels/1/picture



Setup of Video LAN Media Player

  1. Use an internet search engine to download and install the VLC Player
  2. Run the VLC Media Player that you have installed on our Computer
  3. Select “Playback” – “Play” from the Drop Down menu – Open the “Network” Tab
  4. Enter the URL of your IP Camera or NVR on your network (see proper formats above for RTSP or HTTP connections)


My Local NVR: IP Address

User Name: admin

Password: admin12345

Default Port RTSP: 554

In the Network URL I would enter to get the 8th camera main stream



Note: Camera can only use substream and must be set for MJPEG

Note: MJPEG can not be opened by connecting to the NVR, must connect directly to the camera IP Address

Note: Get port number off of browser URL when logged into camera via link from NVR






You can use VLC Player to view the stream –








1. Customer Retention time (HDD)
How long does the customer want to be able to view back his recordings? How long will it be until he realizes there is an event he needs to view? Most customers are content with 1 month (plenty) some are more in lines with at least 2 weeks.

* See downloads section for  a HDD calculator to help determine the storage needed

2. What type of camera shot will the customer want?
When he says he wants a camera “here” ask him what he would like to see in the playback – what is he trying to achieve. Every customer will have a different expectation of what the camera can see. Depending on seeing details like Face Detail/ License Plates, or just being able to see make/model/color of a vehicle can mean the difference between a fixed lens and a varifocal lens.

3. Determining the type of camera to use:
Higher the MegaPixel (MP) the better Digital Zoom you get on live view/playback. A general rule I use if you are mounting to a ceiling/awning you can use a dome (as long as you are trying to look downward). If you mount to a wall mostly use Bullets.

4. Determining between Bullet and Dome Application:
I know some people who put bullets everywhere – but sometimes they can just be visually intrusive. If you care trying to look anywhere from straight down to about 45° a dome is perfect – once you try to start to look out (say across a parking lot) you will want to choose a Bullet.
Reason being: A dome has a limit to how far it can look due to its housing (the lens is inside the housing) where a bullet can even look to the sky when mounted on a wall.

5. Fixed or Vari-focal Lens:
A fixed lens is a point and shoot camera – mostly in 4mm (domes have a 2.8 option). Now with a 4mm you have roughly an 80° FOV (Field of View) from where the camera sites – relate the 80° to that of a Right Angle (I know bringing back Geometry). A 2.8mm Lens has a 98.5° FOV. So if you are sticking a dome outside a 4mm will work (or a bullet), but inside with a 2.8mm you have the option to cover from wall to wall (a whole room up to 100 ft in HD detail) with one camera. A Vari-Focal (VF) Lens will allow you to set them FOV you want – a 3MP FV has a FOV of 105.2° – 31.9° via manual configuration (adjusting a Zoom and Focus Lever on the camera). Now these
are set and forget – and have to be done manually at the camera so allow time for the
technician to get the shot desired.

6. When to use mounting?
Mounts for domes are available for indoor/outdoor. If mounting to a wall putting a Bracket for dome is always a good idea. VF Bullets have conduit Mounts. We have a wide selection and don’t hesitate to ask for suggestions or options!


Cloud P2P Setup Instructions (Smart Phone)

1st – Create a Cloud P2P account

  1. Install and Launch your CCTV Viewer Application on your Android or iOS Device

  1. Select the Setting Icon on the Upper Left Corner.
  2. Create a Cloud P2P account by entering a user name and password and select register.

  1. Enter your email address and re-type the verification code on the right hand side of the screen. Press Get Verification and a new code will be emailed to you.

NOTE: if you get a pop-up message that “Email has been registered” this email account is already in use and you will need to enter a new email address.  This verification code will only be valid for 30 minutes.


  1. Enter the Verification Code that was sent to your email address
  1. Enter the user name and password that you setup in the previous steps
  2. Your Account is now created and you can login.

*There is an option for Auto-login that can be selected



2nd – Add a Device to your Account

  1. Now that you are logged into your Cloud Account you can Add a Device to your account by selecting the in the Could P2P section.
  2. Select the edit Icon to create device registration entry for your account.
  3. Enter your device (NVR) serial number and press search. This can be found on the regulatory label on the bottom of your device.
  4. Select your device by pressing the icon
  5. Enter you verification code that is on the regulatory label that is on the bottom of your device (6 Characters) and press confirm
  6. Your Device is now added to your Smart Phone Application


  1. P2P Cloud Technology is subject to numerous bandwidth, Security, and networking limitations.
  2. NEC does not suggest using this type of integration for reliable or secure video or audio installations (use at your own risk)

Add an External Mic

Wiring an External Mic to a IP Camera

External Camera Cable Pin Out

** Here is an example of an option Mic  “ETS ML1-S SURFACE MOUNT OMNI DIRECTIONAL SURVEILLANCE MICROPHONE” Try and Google to see more information…


There are 2 types of microphones: Active and Passive

  • Active Microphones have a built in pre-amp, and require power to operate.
  • Passive Microphones do not have built in amplifiers, however sometimes can require power.

Active microphones (LOUROE for example):

Depending on the pre-amp the Microphone might require:

* 12VDC. In this case the microphone has to be powered with a 12V DC power supply. These types of microphones are called LINE LEVEL MICROPHONES


* 1.8VDC – 4.5VDC. In this case the Microphone will be powered right from the IP camera itself.

These types of microphones are called MIC LEVEL MICROPHONES


Figure 1 shows the diagram of wiring a LOUROE LE070 LINE LEVEL MICROPHONE

After the camera has been successfully connected to the camera, it is time to change the camera settings, so that the camera can treat the microphone for what it is.

Log in to the camera:

  2. Click on “VIDEO/AUDIO”
  3. Click on “AUDIO”

4.Change the

Microphone type to “LINE IN” if using a LINE LEVEL MICROPHONE

5.Change the Microphone type to “MIC IN” if using a MIC LEVEL MICROPHONE (FIGURE 3)


Passive Microphones are LINE LEVEL MICROPHONES.

When connecting a passive microphone to the camera, change the camera’s Audio Input setting to “LINE IN”.


Passive  microphone  wiring  diagram  is  the  same  as FIGURE  1,  with  the  only difference  of  having  an OPTIONAL POWER SUPPLY(some passive microphones don’t require power, some – do)


Adding the cameras

In the Milestone Management Application:
1. Open the Milestone Management Client
2. Under Servers – Select your Recording server that you want to attach the camera to.
3. Right Click and Select Add Hardware

4. You will have 3 Options to add a device

  • Express – Auto scan your network (easy) * If your camera are on multiple subnets this might not work
  • Address Range – you can set a IP Address Range to scan
  • Manual – Use if you know your camera IP Address


  1. Select Express and the Next Button and you will be prompted to enter your cameras user name and password
  2. Select the Add Button and enter name “admin” and enter the Password of your NEC Cameras (Default: 12345 or admin12345)
  3. ** Only Check the box of the user name and password that you want Milestone to attempt to login to your camera

3. Select Next and Milestone will search the local subnet network for cameras, and attempt to login with the user name and password that you entered above

4. Verify how you want your camera to be listed

5. Set your Camera Group – I have left mine in the default camera group – And select Finish

6. No you will see you new camera added under  your recording Server

Guarding Vision Setup

Guarding Vision Setup


  1. In The NVR Settings: Configuration – Network – Advanced – Platform Access
  2. Select Enable and make- up an verification password 6-12 letters or number and NO special characters
  1. Verify that your Device shows Register Status as Online – Use F5 to refresh the page a few times
  2. Create an account for your user at
  3. After you create an account and logged in, select the Add Button.
  4. You will be asked to enter your devices serial number.
  5. Find you Serial Number at Configuration – System Setting. The serial number is 9 digits between 2 sets of characters in the Serial No Field
  1. Copy and Paste the number into your customers online account and save.
  2. Make sure the status is now online and shows your IP Address
  3. Download the Guarding Vision App from Google Play or iTunes store
  4. Log into the app with your customers email address and password that you used to setup the Online account
  5. Your Devices will sync to the app and you will be prompted for your verification Code that you setup in Step 2.

Adding Network Storage



You can add the allocated NAS or disk of IP SAN to NVR and use it as network HDD.  A maximum of eight network disks can be added.

  1. Access the HDD Information screen: Menu -> HDD -> General




2. Click Add to display the Add NetHDD screen










3.  Add the allocated NetHDD.

4. Set the Type as NAS or IP SAN.

5. Configure the NAS or IP SAN settings.

Add NAS Disk:

  • Enter the NetHDD IP Address in the text field.
  • Click Search to search the available NAS disks.
  • Select the NAS disk from the list. Or, you can manually enter the directory in the text field of NetHDD Directory.
  • Click the OK button to add the configured NAS disk.


  • Enter the NetHDD IP Address in the text field.
  • Click Search to search the available IP SAN disks.
  • Select the IP SAN disk from the list.
  • Click OK to add the selected IP SAN disk.

**A maximum of one IP SAN disk can be added.

    6.  After having successfully added the NAS or IP SAN disk, return to the HDD Information menu. The added NetHDD is displayed in the list.

**If the added NetHDD is uninitialized, select it and click the Init button for initialization.

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